2 Tim 4:19-22

Paul closes the letter with several epistolary aspects. First, he charges Timothy to greet Prisca and Aquila along with the house of Onesiphorus. Second, he informs Timothy that Erastus remains in Corinth and he left Trophimus in Miletus because he was ill. Third, he instructs Timothy to hurry to arrive before winter. He needs his cloak to stay warm. Finally, Paul reports that Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia, and all the brothers and sisters greet Timothy. There is a sort of symmetry here between Paul’s instruction for Timothy to greet Prisca, Aquila, and the house of Onesiphorus and Paul’s report that Eubulus and others greet Timothy. Paul then closes the letter with two succinct phrases: “The Lord be with your spirit”, and, “Grace be with you.”

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2 Tim 4:6-18

Paul now gets far more personal. After having exhorted Timothy to be patient and to fulfill his service, he now writes about his imminent death in terms of an offering. Paul says, “I have fought the good fight, I have finished the race, I have kept the faith.” He goes on: “The wreath of righteousness is reserved for me from now on that the Lord will award to me on that day.” In this case, he is not talking about the day he dies but the eschatological judgment in which Christ will judge the living and the dead in his second coming. Paul will be joined with everyone else who has longed for Christ’s return, and they, too, will receive the wreath of righteousness. Paul commands Timothy to hurry to come to him quickly, because he has been deserted. Demas left him for Thessalonica, Crescens for Galatia, and Titus for Dalmatia. It seems that Demas left a bit of a sour taste in Paul’s mouth, for he writes that he is in love with this present age and deserted him to go to Thessalonica. Paul says that Luke alone is with him. He instructs Timothy to bring with him several things. First, bring Mark. Paul says that Mark is useful for service to him. Second, bring the cloak that he left with Carpus in Troas. Paul later writes that winter is coming. He wants to keep warm, and this fact may be another reason why he tells Timothy to hurry to him. Finally, he instructs Timothy to bring some books, “especially the parchments.” We simply do not know exactly what he meant by the books and parchments, but clearly he wanted to read. Paul implores Timothy specifically to avoid Alexander the coppersmith who did great harm to him. Unlike Paul who will be awarded a wreath of righteousness, the Lord will award to Alexander according to his wicked deeds—for his strong opposition to Paul’s words. Demonstrating just how deserted he was, Paul mentions that no one came with him in his first defense, but he does not count it against them. He highlights that the Lord stood by him and strengthened him instead, so that his charge to preach the gospel might be fully proclaimed and the Gentiles might hear it. Paul says that he was delivered from the lion’s mouth as a result. Paul says that the Lord will rescue him from every evil deed, saving him for the kingdom. Finally, Paul gives all glory to God as a final declaration of the gospel.

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2 Tim 3:1-4:5

Paul describes the utter degradation of the wicked in the last days. But the last days are both future and present at the same time. He describes how these wicked people will be. Such people will be the opposite of public expectation. Such people will make it hard to live. Paul gives 19 descriptions of them. They will be selfish; literally, they will love themselves. They will also love money. They will be braggarts and arrogant. They will be blasphemers—slanderers or denigrating, demeaning, or defaming. They will be disobedient to their parents. Perhaps, as a result, they will be youth or a combination of youth and adults. They will be ungrateful people. They will be unholy—not set apart. They will be hardhearted. In other words, they will have no regard for others. They will be irreconcilable, that is, they will be unwilling to negotiate a solution to a problem involving a second person. They will be slanderers; literally, “devils,” meaning adversaries who slander the reputation of others. They will have no self-control. They will be brutal or savage. They will have no interest in the public good. They will be traitors or, in other words, betrayers of people. They will be rash, reckless, or thoughtless. They will be conceited. They will love themselves more than they love God. In fact, Paul says, they will have an outward appearance of godliness but they will actually deny its power, which means they will be hypocrites. Paul instructs Timothy to avoid these selfish, greedy, untrustworthy, unsociable, and hypocritical people.

Paul states that such people are already here in the present. Some have come and wormed their way into households to deceive foolish women. Such wicked people, having the semblance of godliness, are posing as teachers. But they are slimy and slippery creatures; they make their way by any dubious means possible. And they are preying on foolish women, women who are overwhelmed by sin and who are led by many desires; these women are always learning but are not able to arrive at knowledge of the truth, because they are being deceived—captivated—by these wicked worms. Paul returns to these wicked people, saying that they are just like Jannes and Jambres. They oppose the truth as they have corrupted minds, so they are worthless for the faith. But who are Jannes and Jambres? I’m glad you asked! Let me tell you!

The scene is Exodus 7. Moses and Aaron, being sent by the Lord, confront Pharaoh and his magicians. Aaron throw’s down his staff, and it turns into a serpent. Pharaoh’s magicians do the same. But Aaron’s serpent swallows up the magicians’. Later, Moses and Aaron confronted Pharaoh and his magicians by the Nile River. Aaron touched his staff to the water, and the river turned to blood. The magicians were able to replicate the same thing but to a lesser, more inferior degree. In the Hebrew Bible, the names of the magicians are not mentioned. However, according to Origen, a scholar from the 2nd and 3rd Century, there was Jewish apocryphal book, The Book of Jannes and Jambres, from which Paul was referencing. However, we have never found this book. Other Jewish literature made reference to this pair as well. Together, they represent the inferior opposition to the Lord.

By mentioning Jannes and Jambres, Paul is declaring that these wicked people oppose God with their corrupt minds and worthless faith. He goes on to say that these people will not make progress beyond the foolish women, because their madness is plain for everyone to see just as it was plain for the Hebrews and the Egyptians to see the folly of the magicians—Jannes and Jambres.

In stark contrast, Paul offers himself up as the antithetical model to follow against these wicked people. Timothy, Paul says, followed faithfully his example of teaching, way of life, way of thinking, faith, patience, love, perseverance, persecutions and sufferings, such as what happened at Antioch, Iconia, and Lystra. When persecuted, Paul says the Lord had saved him from all of those situations. He affirms to Timothy that everyone who desires to live a godly life in Christ Jesus will be persecuted. Just like Paul, all those who call on the name of the Lord will be oppressed. But there is more to it that what has been stated. We must understand Paul’s persecutions in Antioch, Iconia, and Lystra, which are mentioned in Acts 13-14.

In Antioch, at the synagogue on the Sabbath, Paul and his companions were asked to give a word of exhortation. Paul urged the Israelites and those who fear God to listen to his word of exhortation. He recounted the history of Israel and proclaimed that the Jews in Jerusalem did not understand the Scriptures that they read every week, and so they condemned Christ to death, but God raised him from the dead. He quotes Psalm 2: “You are my Son, today I have begotten you”. He quotes Isaiah 55: “I will give you the holy assurances of David”. He quotes Psalm 16: “You will not allow your Holy One to see decay”. He was proving his point from Scripture that Christ is the promised Son of God who fulfills the promises that God made to David and is the demonstration of God’s power—his resurrection. He proclaims that it is in Jesus that forgiveness of sins is received, sins that bound them under the Law. He quotes Habakkuk 1: “Look, scoffers, and marvel and perish, for I am working a deed in your days, a deed that you will never believe if someone might tell you in detail”. He challenges them not to be like the scoffers and refuse to believe. Paul preaches Christ as the fulfillment of Israel. He warns them not to refuse Christ. This word of exhortation was initially embraced, and Paul was urged to speak it again on the following Sabbath. And he drew a massive crowd. The Jews became jealous and spoke out against Paul. So, Paul and Barnabas spoke out boldly, stating that the gospel needed to be spoken to them first, but since they have rejected it, they declared that they would move on to the Gentiles, quoting Isaiah 49: “I have set you as a light for the Gentiles, for you to be salvation as far as the end of the earth”. The Jews then stirred up persecution against them, driving them out of Antioch.

In Iconium, where Paul and Barnabas went next, they did the same thing. They went to synagogue and spoke their word of exhortation. Many believed, both Jew and Gentile. Jews then stirred up persecution, poisoning the minds of the Gentiles. Paul and Barnabas stayed there for a long time, performing miracles as well. The Jews attempted to stone them, so they fled to Lystra and Derbe.

In Lystra, they also proclaimed the good news. There was a lame man there, being crippled from birth. Paul healed him with a simple command: “Stand upright on your feet”. The Lycaonians mistook this miracle as a sign that Paul and Barnabas were gods, Hermes and Zeus, respectively. They were going to sacrifice oxen at their temple when Paul and Barnabas spoke out with the gospel. But the Jews from Antioch and Iconium came to Lystra and incited the crowds. Here they succeeded in stoning Paul, and then they dragged him out of the city. They thought he was dead. However, he was not. He went with Barnabas to Derbe and proclaimed the gospel. Then, in reverse order, they went to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, strengthening and encouraging the disciples in those cities, saying, “It is necessary for us to enter the kingdom of God through many persecutions”.

And so, Paul is saying to Timothy that he will face persecution, which may be mere strife or near deadly beatings. Paul is saying that no matter the persecution, he needs to endure it for the sake of the gospel, and he must do so with patience.

Paul returns to the wicked people, saying that evil people, impostors, will degrade even further, both deceiving as well as being deceived. For such people, it is an endless loop of degradation. Again, in stark contrast, Paul charges Timothy to remain in what he had learned and became convinced of, for he had learned from Paul himself and from infancy he had learned the sacred writings that are able to teach him in salvation through faith that is in Christ Jesus. Paul is not talking about the New Testament. No, he is talking about the Hebrew Bible, which in fact speaks of Christ. Paul states that all Scripture is inspired or God-breathed and is useful or advantageous for teaching, rebuking, improving—correcting or restoring—and training in righteousness, with the result that the person of God might be complete, having been equipped for every good work. Scripture helps teach, rebuke, correct, and train. It has a view towards righteousness, the result of which is wholeness in God. And such a one is to do good deeds.

As a result of his example, and due to the advantage of Scripture, Paul charges Timothy before God and Christ. Paul states that Christ is about to judge the living and the dead. Paul states by way of an oath: by Christ’s appearance and by his kingdom, I charge you. Christ is the ruler of the cosmos, and in the last days, it is Christ who will judge the living as well as the dead; his kingdom will be fully ushered in by his appearance, which is his second coming, his return. Until then, Timothy is to preach the word, he is to be ready when it is convenient or when it is inconvenient; literally, “in season; not in season.” He is to correct, rebuke, and encourage with all patience and teaching. As a leader, Timothy is expected to preach and be ready. He is to correct, provide disapproval of someone’s action, and to rebuke, that is, to warn, but he is also to encourage. In all these things, from preaching to encouraging, from correcting and warning, he is to complete these tasks with patience and teaching. He will need the patience, because the time will come when the hearers will not put up with sound teaching. Instead, they will accumulate or heap up for themselves teachers who will preach according to what they want to hear. These hearers will turn their ears away from the truth, which is another way of saying that they simply will not listen to the truth, and, instead, they will turn to myths. Paul charges Timothy to preach and encourage patiently, because his hearers will eventually ignore him; as a result, he will need also to correct and warn them patiently in his teaching. So, Paul instructs Timothy to be well-balanced. He uses the word “sober”, a figurative meaning to instruct Timothy in being free from the forms of mental and spiritual drunkenness, namely excess, passion, rashness, confusion, and more. Timothy needs to stay level-headed in the face of opposition, especially when those who listen ignore him and gather up teachers who simply teach them what they want to hear. Timothy also needs to endure such hardship patiently and do the work of an evangelist. In so doing, he will fulfill his service, that is, he will complete his office as leader over the church.

2 Tim 2:1-26

Paul picks up the theme of suffering with a charge for Timothy to be strong in the grace of Christ Jesus and to entrust the message that he heard from Paul and many witnesses to faithful people. Timothy was to be strong in Christ. Personally, he was to suffer for the gospel. But he was also to invest himself in others just as Paul had done in Timothy. Paul instructs Timothy to focus his efforts on people who will be able to teach others. It’s a pyramid structure—a network. Just as my teacher’s teacher taught him, he also taught me, and I, too, taught my students in kind. From one person the instruction multiplies. Paul expects this case to be true for Timothy. His suffering is also to do the task before him, to teach and equip others to teach and equip others in turn despite the opposition.

Paul relates this concept to that of a solider, an athlete, and a farmer. A good soldier of Christ Jesus suffers. But how? I’m glad you asked! Let me tell you! According to Paul, the soldier do not involve himself in any day to day life activities that would interfere with his objective as a soldier with the result that he might please his commanding officer. The comparison here is that just as a soldier does not entangle in the day to day affairs and allow his primary objective to get distracted, so also must Timothy focus on the task ahead of him, to teach and equip others who will be able to do the same in kind. It is suffering because of the opposition. And like an athlete who competes fairly in accordance to the rules to win the wreath, so also must Timothy teach according to the rules—according to that which he heard from Paul and the many witnesses. Finally, as the tired farmer ought to receive his first share of the crops, so also must Timothy toil, labor, and work hard to teach others who will be able to teach even more. Paul instructs Timothy to consider these comparisons. Soldier. Athlete. Farmer. Timothy. Suffer. Teacher. His ministry is one of suffering by way of teaching, and it requires hard work, adherence to sound doctrine, and focus on the task at hand.

Not only is he to use his mind to think on these things and in so doing allow God to help him understand all things, but Timothy is also to use his mind to remember Jesus Christ, the one who has been raised and continues to be raised from among the dead. Paul instructs him to remember that Jesus Christ comes from the seed of David. Paul’s version of the gospel is that Christ is the royal descendent of King David. It is in this gospel that Paul is suffering hardship unto the point of being chained as a prisoner. Although Paul may be chained, the word of God is not able to be bound by chains or imprisoned and locked up. The gospel transcends physical barriers and bonds. For this reason, Paul states that he endures all things for the sake of the elect—God’s chosen ones—with the purpose that they might also find salvation that is in Christ Jesus.

Paul has gone on another tangent. Timothy is to remember Christ, the rightful kingly heir to the throne of David, the subject of the gospel. The tangent: the gospel, unlike Paul in his present circumstances, is not subject to chains or imprisonment and knowns no bounds; Paul endures his imprisonment for the sake of God’s chosen ones, in order that they might be saved. Paul is suffering for the gospel. Paul suffers because he knows that it might help further the kingdom of God, leading those who have been chosen to find salvation that comes from Christ. This salvation comes with eternal glory, the immortality that Christ brings with life while having abolished death.

Paul breaks out in a sort of hymn, saying, “This word is faithful.” The conditional statements here assume that the protasis, the initial clause (“if” phrase), is true for the presentation’s sake. If we have died with him, then we will also live with him. If we endure with him, then we will also reign with him. If we will deny him, then he will also deny us. If we are unfaithful, then he will remain faithful, for he is not able to deny himself. It is possible that this content was an actual hymn that Paul used or quoted here. Christ came and brought life through his death. But Christ is also the head of all creation; he is the ruler of all. Paul proclaims that we will also rule with Christ for having endured suffering with him. But if we disown Christ, to disclaim association with him, then he will treat us the same way. However, if we live unfaithfully, that is, we live without a sense of obligation unto Christ, he will remain faithful, for he cannot deny himself. He is consistent when we may be inconsistent in the acting out of our faith. This hymn helps Paul to encourage Timothy in suffering for the gospel, as it provides more content for the things that he should be teaching to the capable teachers.

Paul instructs Timothy to remind the teachers of these things, of our position relative to Christ in death and life, endurance and reign, denial, or unfaithfulness. But Paul does not stop there. He charges Timothy to charge them before God not to split hairs over words. In other words, they were not to get into heated, perhaps violent, word disputes. Why? Because such disputes are pointless, fruitless endeavors that only harm those who hear them.

Paul instructs Timothy to make every effort to present himself to God as an approved man, an unashamed worker, one who guides the word of truth along a straight path. Paul is telling Timothy to strive for excellence in the sense of a approval—one that God would approve of. Such a person is not ashamed. Instead, that one rightly handles the word of truth.

Thus far, Paul tells Timothy to suffer for the gospel by God’s strength, to teach others to teach the gospel, to remember Christ, to charge the capable teachers not to wrangle over words, and to present himself to God as an unashamed worker, an approved man for rightly handling the word of truth.

Paul then exhorts Timothy to avoid profane chatter. Profane in this case bears the sense of pointless, empty, or worthless; chatter is simply empty talk. In this context of the letter, profane chatter is unhealthy teaching that is devoid of Christian content. Such teaching progresses further in impiety. Paul identifies two chief proponents of profane chatter, and they are Hymenaeus and Philetus. These two deviated from the truth, saying that the resurrection had already happened. Such profane chatter is cancerous. As a result, they were upsetting the faith of some people. Yet, Paul affirms that God’s firm foundation has stood and continues to stand. This foundation is twofold. First, Num 16:5. Second, Sir 17:26 and Is 26:13.

In the first clause, Paul is clearly quoting Num 16:5. Interestingly enough, the context of Num 16 is a rebellion of Korah and 250 Levites against Aaron. The Lord made it abundantly clear that it would be Aaron, not the rebellious Korah and the Levites, who would perform the priestly duties in the Tabernacle. Within this context of rebellion, the Lord identified those who are his and who are holy—set apart—and who will be allowed to approach him. In the second clause, Paul opens with a phrase taken from Sir 17:26, “turn away from unrighteousness.” The context of Sir 17 here is repentance. The entire sentence reads as follows: “Return to the Most High and turn away from iniquity, and hate intensely what he abhors.” Also in the second clause, Paul seems to include part of Is 26:13, which reads, “Oh Lord our God, other lords besides you have ruled over us, but we acknowledge your name alone.” This verse is to be read within the context of God as the Just One who approves of the righteous.

And so, while some are upsetting the faith of others, God, the Just One, is able to pick out amongst a sea of rebellious people those whom are his. Such ones as these, if they are to be approved as righteous, must turn away from unrighteousness. And the righteous are those who call upon the name of the Lord. Paul uses Torah to make his point and perhaps supplements it with other Jewish literature. But, really, Paul is applying this Torah to Timothy. It is Timothy, like Aaron, who is suffering due to the rebellious ones, but it is Timothy who is to rightly handle the word of truth and teach others.

Paul moves on to another analogy. Previously, he drew upon three professions: the soldier, the athlete, and the farmer. Now, Paul draws upon household utensils or vessels. Kitchenware, flatware, silverware. In a great house is not only goldenware and silverware but also woodenware and earthenware. Some of these vessels are used for honor and some for no honor. In other words, some serve special functions and others are regular, run-of-the-mill vessels. In this analogy, Paul states that if someone cleanses him or herself from these things, that is, splitting hairs (2 Tim 2:14) and profane chatter (2 Tim 2:16-18), then he or she will have been dedicated—made holy, set apart—useful to the master. Rather than invoking the judgment of God as did the sons of Korah, Timothy is to present himself to God as approved without being guilty of splitting hairs, which harms those who hear it, or participating in profane chatter, which leads into further irreverence for God, and so be declared righteous by God, and, as a result, become an instrument for God and so be used for his purposes and his plans, that is, to do good works.

Paul charges Timothy to run away and to run after. He exhorts him to run away from youthful desires. What are youthful desires? Desire here bears the connotation of a craving or lust, a desire for something forbidden or inordinate, such as sexual desires or the desires for gambling, drunkenness, or gluttony. Instead, he is to run after righteousness, faith, love, and peace. We all know that followers of God are to pursue righteousness. It stands to reason that all followers of God pursue faith. We know that Christ taught love as a key principle of discipleship, and Paul heralded love greater than faith. But peace? Paul instructs Timothy to pursue peace in the face of opposition and in the presence of quarrels. Timothy is to pursue these things along with the rest of those who call upon the Lord with a pure heart.

Paul adds to his previous charges to Timothy and instructs him also to avoid stupid and uneducated disputes. Just as Timothy should not wrangle over words or involve himself in profane chatter, he should not engage in stupid, uneducated, controversial questions or matters for dispute. Such disputes lead to quarrels—heated disputes or fights without the use of weapons. Paul is talking about fights that nearly come to blows. According to Paul, it is not fitting for the servant of the Lord to engage in such disputes. Instead, the servant must be kind, capable to teach, tolerant in the sense of patient or bearing evil without resentment, and able to correct opponents with gentleness. In other words, instead of engaging in heated arguments over silly, ignorant matters. Instead, due to one’s kind teaching and tolerant, gentle correction, the opposition might have an epiphany and come to repentance as well as the truth, breaking their captivity from the devil and his will. For Paul, starting such silly quarrels is an investment in the devil’s agenda. The devil is the main adversary of the Christian. The devil is a slanderer. His agenda is to slander Christians. He wants to use false statements and accusations against us to do us harm. When he gets us to do that towards each other, we carry out his will. When we embrace that mindset, then we are captive to his will. But with servants of the Lord such as Timothy, there is yet hope that these people will come to their senses and escape the snare of the devil.

2 Tim 1:3-18

In writing to Timothy, Paul writes how appreciative to God he is for him. Just seeing Timothy would give Paul joy. Paul says that he worships God with a pure conscience; this worship is the same kind of service his ancestors rendered unto God. Part of his worship is to make unceasing remembrance of Timothy in his prayers both night and day, recalling his tears. Paul affirms to Timothy that he knows just how sincere his faith is by attributing it to a matrilineal line. The same faith was first in his grandmother, Lois; the same faith was also in his mother, Eunice; and Paul declares that he is convinced it is in fact in Timothy.

It is for this reason, that Timothy has the sincere faith, that Paul charges him to remember to rekindle the gift of God that is in him, a gift that was generated by the laying on of his own hands on his beloved son in the faith. The gift was his ministry. The gift was his ordination. He was to keep his ministry aflame, but, as with any fire, it must be constantly tended to. Paul is telling Timothy not to forget to tend to his fire, which is his ministry.

Paul then tells Timothy a very empowering theological truth: God has not given to us a spirit of cowardice or timidity—a lack of mental strength—but, rather, he has given us a spirit of power—capability—and love and prudence or self-discipline. Paul is explaining to him why he needs to tend to his ministry and keep it aflame. It is because God has given us a capable, loving, and self-disciplined spirit. In the ministry, God provides the strength to keep it aflame. But it still requires action.

At this point, Paul provides the theme for the rest of the letter. Timothy is not to be ashamed of the witness of the Lord nor of Paul in his chain. Instead, he is to co-suffer with Paul for the gospel according to God’s power (Remember the spirit God gave to us?). Paul then breaks out in a hymn of some sort, which succinctly sums up the gospel. God saved us. God called us with a holy calling. God did not call us according to our words, but according to his own purpose and grace. God gave this purpose and grace to us in Christ Jesus before the dawn of time, but now they have been revealed in the appearance of Christ Jesus, who is our savior. This Savior abolished death but brought life and immortality through the gospel.

Paul then recounts his function in God’s plan. He was placed as herald, apostle, and teacher of the gospel. As a result, he suffers imprisonment, but he is not ashamed, because he knows Christ, the one in whom he has believed and continues to believe; he knows the one in whom he has put his trust in and continues to trust that he is able to guard his deposit in the final days of this age.

The theme is suffering for the gospel. It is co-suffering that is done by the strength of God. It is neither by our own works that we are saved nor by our own power that we suffer for God’s kingdom. It is both by the grace and the power of God.

So, Paul charges Timothy to hold to the standard of sound instruction and guard the good deposit through the Holy Spirit. Again, it is by God’s empowerment that we are to carry out through the suffering. But part of this suffering also entails keeping the ministry aflame, and Timothy’s ministry was to build up the church in Ephesus in Paul’s absence. Paul is here charging him to hold fast to sound doctrine—healthy teaching. We know from the rest of the letter that Timothy is facing opposition filled with unsound doctrine. It is no easy task attempting to overcome fierce opposition, and for this reason it is fitting that the task of sound teaching is part of Timothy’s suffering for the gospel.

Now, Paul goes off on a tangent regarding his desertion. Everyone deserted him in Asia, and, in particular, Phygellus and Hermogenes. Onesipherus also deserted him, but Paul expressed gratitude for him and his household and even asked that God would forgive him despite deserting him.

Paul’s suffering was loneliness. In a way, he was empathizing with Timothy. To stand up for what is right when everyone else is not is essentially to stand alone. Paul recognizes this fact, and so he finds a way to relate with Timothy. They both must suffer for the gospel together and not be ashamed. Paul is alone in prison, and Timothy is alone in sound doctrine.

2 Tim 1:1-2

Paul is writing to Timothy, one of his coworkers, but also his son in the faith. Paul identifies himself as an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God in accordance with the promise of life in Christ Jesus. He greets Timothy on paper not by saying, “Dear Timothy,” or “Hello, Timothy,” but instead, “Grace, mercy, and peace.” Although he is merely greeting Timothy, this opening phrase is pregnant in meaning. It is God’s grace, mercy, and peace. The Father. The Lord. God’s plan. God’s promise. Paul writes to Timothy and starts with a reminder that God is in charge; it is from God that grace, mercy, and peace are found.

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Greet Prisca and Aquila and the house of Onesiphorus.

Erastus remains in Corinth.

Hurry to come before winter.

Eubulus, Pudens, Linus, Claudia, and all the brothers and sisters greet you.

The Lord be with your spirit.

Grace be with you. (2 Tim 4:19, 20, 21a, 21b, 22a, 22b)

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No one came with me in my first defense, but everyone deserted me; may it not be counted against them; but the Lord stood by me and strengthened me, so that the preaching might be fully proclaimed and all the Gentiles might hear it through me; so, I was delivered from the lion’s mouth.

The Lord will rescue me from every evil deed and save me for his heavenly kingdom; to him be glory forever and ever, amen. (2 Tim 4:16-17, 18)

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But I sent Tychicus to Ephesus.

When coming, bring the cloak that I left behind in Troas for Carpus, and the books—especially the parchments.

Alexander the coppersmith showed me great harm; the Lord will award him according to his deeds; you also avoid him, for he exceedingly opposed our words. (2 Tim 4:12, 13, 14-15)