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Finished with the Gospels and Acts

One thousand five hundred sixty-three words. That’s 1,563 words. In total, from Genesis through John, that’s a lot of words.

I noticed that John and Acts use akatharsia in a similar way as the Synoptics: unclean spirits. However, there is a new use in Acts when Peter sees the vision of the sheet with the animals. The word from the Synoptics that Jesus used when talking about “unclean” things that come out from the heart, koinos, is used in tandem here with akatharsia. Interesting.

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Finished with the Synoptics in the Biblical View of Sex

Up to 1,533 words thus far.

So. Many. Words.

And, to be honest, I’m certain I’ve missed some. There are so many that not a few are bound to slip through the cracks.

What’s striking to me is that “unclean”, which was so prevalent in MT/LXX, has been reserved for “unclean spirits” in the Synoptics with one exception: what comes out of the person’s heart makes them unclean. However, it is not the same Greek word between LXX and NT. Interesting.

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I finally finished going through the Hebrew Bible for words in the Biblical view of sex

1,416 words found, listed, literally translated, assessed in context, and dynamically translated, many with notes.

Now to work on the New Testament. Hopefully, it will be faster as I am not having to go through both the MT and the LXX alongside of the English.

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New Colors Day

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Understanding the Force of Hebrew Verbs

Quick reference guide to the force of Hebrew verbal stems and Aktionsart:

  • Qal. Simple active.
  • Niphal. Simple passive/reflexive/reciprocal.
  • Piel or Polel. Active.
    • Intensive.
    • Factitive (intransitive becomes transitive, taking a direct object).
    • Denominative (made or derived from a noun).
    • Iterative (repeated action).
  • Pual or Polal. Passive.
    • Intensive.
    • Factitive (intransitive becomes transitive, taking a direct object).
    • Denominative (made or derived from a noun).
    • Iterative (repeated action).
  • Hiphil. Active.
    • Causative.
    • Simple.
    • Declarative.
    • Factitive.
    • Denominative.
    • Permissive.
  • Hophal. Passive.
    • Causative.
    • Simple.
    • Declarative.
    • Factitive.
    • Denominative.
    • Permissive.
  • Hithpael or Hithpolel. Reflexive.
    • Intensive.
    • Reciprocal.
    • Iterative.
    • Simple.

And to the force of Hebrew verbal tenses and Aspekt:

  • Perfect. Complete action (usually past or perfect; can also be present).
  • Imperfect. Incomplete action (usually present or future).
  • Cohortative. Volitional action, 1st person.
  • Imperative. Volitional action, 2nd person.
  • Jussive. Volitional action, 3rd person.
  • Infinitive. The verbal noun.
    • Construct:
      • Purpose (“in order to”, intention, or result (“so that”).
      • Inceptive (“about to”).
      • Verbal noun (translated as infinitive but functions as a simple gerund).
      • Complementary (“by _____ing”).
      • Temporal (“when” or “while”).
    • Absolute:
      • Emphatic. Precede (or rarely follow) a perfect or imperfect verb of the same root to emphasize the verbal meaning.
      • Imperatival. Stand-alone infinitive.
      • Contemporaneous Action. two infinitive absolutes in combination with a perfect or imperfect verb to express two verbal actions occurring at the same time.
      • Complementary. Attaching to the main verb of the sentence, this infinitive carries the temporal value of that main verb.
  • Participle. The verbal adjective.
    • Attributive. The participle provides an attribute to the head noun, and it follows or matches that noun in gender, number, and definiteness.
    • Predicative. The participle precedes or follows the head noun and agrees in gender and number only (it does not match in definiteness).
    • Substantive. The participle is independent of any other noun. Functions as a noun.
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Isn’t it odd that many of the forms of porneia, from adultery, to incest, to bestiality, and even the so-called cultic prostitution, are all explicitly prohibited but (1) polygyny, (2) profane prostitution, (3) concubinage, and (4) pre-marital sex are not?

#1 is actually upheld: Exodus 21:10.

#2 is actually tolerated: Deuteronomy 23:18.

#3 is actually acknowledged: 1 Kings 11:3.

#4 is actually addressed but not declared a sin: Exodus 22:16.

If polygyny is upheld, profane prostitution is tolerated, concubinage is acknowledged, and pre-marital sex is discouraged but not condemned, what do we make of porneia?

Edit: I accidentally wrote znh (Hebrew), but I meant porneia (Greek). Znh only refers to (1) prostitution, (2) fornication, and, by extension as a sort of sub-type, (3) adultery. However, when the LXX translated Hebrew into Greek, it more broadly applied porneia to matters of incest, homosexuality, and bestiality beyond the types of znh previously mentioned. My mistake. I have updated the title and the post as a result.

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My lexicons are now complete

I was able to get TDOT on sale this week to round out my lexicon collection. In electronic form, it’s nearly $1,000 normally. Accordance usually has it on sale for cheaper than that, but this week they had an awesome sale price of under $200. In print, this 15 volume set can easily go for over $3,000. Needless to say, it was a steal.

Now, I have HALOT, BDB, and TDOT for my Hebrew lexicons and BDAG, LSJ, and TDNT for my Greek ones.

My go-to is HALOT and BDAG for Hebrew and Greek, respectively, but I often reference BDB and LSJ. In the past, seldomly I read TDNT articles, but now I have TDOT and can read that as well.

Why all of these lexicons? Each triplet is structured the same: a modern and contemporary lexicon; an older but still modern lexicon; and a sort of encyclopedia of lexical data.

When I am using Accordance, I can triple click on a word I do not know or I want to learn more about. It will pull up in the main lexicon for that language. From there, I can double click the lexical entry, copy it, go to another lexicon for that language, and paste it in the search. If there is an entry for it, I can learn more about that word perhaps or compare the entries to help determine the meaning of the word in the context of the text I am translating or studying.

With TDOT, much like TDNT for Greek, I can now read thorough articles on words and their uses. Since it is an article format much like an encyclopedia, it helps explain the word in depth in a way the normal lexicons cannot, so I use it for a slow, deep, meaningful study as opposed to a quick gloss and translation.

But, a word of caution: the lexicons are still subject to the primary sources lest we allow interpretive efforts of the authors and editors to guide us instead of the text itself. Reference them, but still hold them in healthy, critical suspicion.

Happy translating!

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Reached 200 subs on YouTube!

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Sex: The Biblical View (update)

I’m over 700 lines in and only now arriving at Psalms. What originally was very limited substantively has grown leaps and bounds for our topic in the Psalter. Each line represents at least 1 word in the verse related to our topic. And, I haven’t even arrived at the prophets yet. Admittedly, Leviticus slowed me down significantly. Once I get to Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel, and Hosea, I will slow down significantly as well.

But it is going well. I’m seeing even more connections than before, especially by adding in the LXX. I’m getting more and more excited about arriving at the NT to see how the LXX terminology bridges the gap between MT Hebrew and NT Greek.

Plus, the pivot tables will help show high level overviews of word usages between commands (prohibitions) and figurative/literal. Word association will be prevalent too.

Alas, I shan’t put the cart before the horse. I still have to put in the work. Hours and hours of work. At the going rate, I won’t be done with this project until December if I had to hazard a guess.

But, who doesn’t love data? Labor of love. Pun intended.